A literary analysis of excalibur by john boorman

Legend[ edit ] There are two main traditions of the Tristan legend.

A literary analysis of excalibur by john boorman

A literary analysis of excalibur by john boorman

We see Michael Psellus in the 11th Century surprisingly contrasting "the ancient and lesser Rome, and the later, more powerful city" [! It is now hard to grasp Constantinople as a greater city than Rome, but there would have been little in Rome's favor in Psellus' day.

Even so, in the midst of Istanbul, it mostly still remains standing, in some places even restored, its breaches merely allowing modern streets to pass [ note ].

That's not the Roman Empire! That's some horrible medieval thing! As Roman historians liked to use archaic place names, and so frequently called Constantinople "Byzantium," their use of "Byzantine," Byzantinus, was simply and logically for residents of the Capital.

The Suda [a tenth century encyclopedia] calls [the historian] Malchus [of Philadelphia] a "Byzantine," which usually meant a native of Constantinople but in this case must have meant a longtime resident.

German, envoys, in an embassy from Otto Iwith their own pretentions as successors of Rome, arrived at the Court of Nicephorus Phocas intheir represenation of Otto as the "Emperor of the Romans" Imperator Romanorum was hotly disputed. Otto was not a successor of Constantine. A letter then arrived from the Pope addressed to the "emperor of the Greeks.

Evidently the Pope had not heard of "Byzantium" as the name of the Empire [ note ]. While "Byzantium" is indeed used merely as a term of convience and custom by most historians, there is the awkward question of when "Rome" ends and "Byzantium" begins.

If Rome "fell" inthen clearly "Byzantium" should begin there; but this boundary is rarely used. Since Constantinople itself must be explained, Byzantine histories commonly begin with Constantine, often inwhen Constantine had defeated Lincinius and acquired the East. This is what one finds in A.

The flip side of this would be simply to end the "Roman Empire" with Constantine. This is not common, but I have seen Garrett G. With thirty-six lectures on Emperors, Fagan abruptly stops at Constantine, with a handoff to Kenneth W. Harl's lectures, "The World of Byzantium" [], to continue the story.

Fagan says that, to him, Constantine was the first Mediaeval, or the first Byzantine, Emperor; and so his job is done. The drawback of this approach is that the last century and a half of the Western Empire falls between the stools, not to mention the extraordinary and tragic Julianwho ruled the whole Empire.

A Byzantinist is not going to pay much attention to Ricimeras Harl, who doesn't even mention his name, indeed does not. And Harl has the annoying habit of saying "Stilichio" for Stilicho and "Visiogoths" for "Visigoths," forms that I do not see attested in any print source.

So this approach really will not do. On the other hand, David R.

From Gateway to Hell, Hutchinson, 1970

Sear's Byzantine Coins and Their Values [Seaby, ] is the direct continuation of his Roman Coins and Their Values [Seaby, ], and he chooses to make the division at the reign of the Emperor Anastasius just because Anastasius carried out a major reform of the copper coinage.

Others take Phocas or Heracliusunder whom the Danube Frontier collapsed and the Arab invasion occurred, as the first "Byzantine" emperors: Fischer Verlag, Part 2, Second Edition,pp.

Fischer Verlag, Second Edition,pp. One nice touch for the division at Phocas could be that he was the last Emperor to place a monument, a column, in the Forum at Rome. The most recent thorough history, however, Warren Treadgold's A History of the Byzantine State and Society [Stanford University Press, ], begins where many of the explanations must begin, with Diocletian himself in -- elsewhere [Byzantium and Its Army,Stanford,p.

A final date for the transition could bewhich is used by Peter Brown and others to terminate "Late Antiquity. Both these events are significant, but they seem like variations on developments already far progressed. However much one wishes to avoid the dangers [?

As I have noted, several recent writers prefer to see "Byzantium" proper as beginning from ca. Constantinople was formally inaugurated in ADbut there was not yet such an entity as "Byzantium," distinct from the eastern Roman Empire, and it remains the case that the Byzantines thought of themselves as Romans chapter 3.

The shock and loss of territory consequent on the Arab invasion of the seventh century also necessitated a painful adjustment. Nevertheless, adopting a later periodization risks obscuring the fact that what we call Byzantium had a long earlier history; it was not a new state formed only in the medieval period.Adolf Hitler was obsessed with the occult, in his case the Thule Society, closely inter-connected with German Theosophists.

The jolly roger, skull and cross bones, "der Totenkopf" was an emblem worn by Hitler's SS soldiers and was emblazoned on SS armoured cars and tanks (see images on this page). A somewhat tragic figure, Arthur is the rightful heir to the throne in most versions of the mythos, who brings order to the land by defeating his rivals and other threats — and then tries his best to be a good ruler, assembling the Knights of the Round Table to serve as paragons of chivalry.

His rule is ultimately undone by the plots and shortcomings of his own followers and family. Tristan and Iseult is an influential romance story, retold in numerous sources with as many variations since the 12th century. The story is a tragedy about the adulterous love between the Cornish knight Tristan (Tristram) and the Irish princess Iseult (Isolde, Yseult, etc.).

The narrative predates and most likely influenced the Arthurian romance of Lancelot and Guinevere, and has had a. Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren't, and Other Reflections on Roman History What do you think of the state of Romania?

Does it stand as from the beginning, or has it been diminished? Doctrina Jacobi nuper baptizati. Mar 04,  · Because the Democratic front-runner was clearly referring to Donald Trump’s proposed border wall, the literal interpretation would be that she was demanding the tearing down of the rather meager defenses currently dividing the United States from Latin America.

year-old Jack Harris (above) fought and died at Gallipoli. The family's vicar, Everard la Touche, wanted Jack to go to war. The vicar believed the war was a battle of good versus evil.

Tristan and Iseult - Wikipedia