The following review contains humor. Look for the irony of the italicized parts when compared to the previous statements. I have to apologize for this review. The concept of this book was so outlandish that I think it made my mind wander, and you may find some odd random thoughts scattered in it.
It is repeatedly stated that chemical and biological weapons were heavily used during the war, particularly in mass air-raids against cities, similar to the portrayal of World War III. Following the war, which seems to have petered out rather than been ended by a decisive victory, the global economy collapsed and created an unprecedented worldwide economic crisis.
This met with widespread resistance, including large-scale riots at Golders Green and a massacre at the British Museum. Realising that they could not force people to adopt the new lifestyle, the World Controllers instead united the planet into the One World State and began a peaceful campaign of change.
By the time the novel is set, the World State is fully established and almost all the people of Earth are citizens. Political geography[ edit ] At the time of the novel, the entire planet is united as the World State, governed by ten World Controllers, headquartered in various key cities.
Prospective World Controllers are recruited from social outcasts who display unconventional thoughts. A few isolated areas have been left as "savage reservations", including parts of New MexicoSamoaand a small group of islands off the coast of New Guinea. Mond explains that certain areas which have very few resources or languish in unpleasant climates are not "civilised" by the government, as it would be uneconomical.
Subsequently, these areas are left as reservations, and local life continues—albeit under constant surveillance by the World State.
Small islands across the planet, such as the Falkland IslandsIcelandand the Marquesas Islandsare reserved for citizens of the World State who do not wish to live in, or do Brave new world a sterile society fit into the normal society.
Society is controlled by Alphas and their subordinates, Betas. Below them, in descending order of intellectual and physical capacity, are Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons.
Each caste is further subdivided into Plus and Minus with Epsilons having the additional classifications of regular or semi-moronand are distinguished by colour-coded work clothes.
Epsilons are dressed in black, Deltas in khaki, Gammas in leaf green, Betas in mulberry, and Alphas in grey. At the very pinnacle of society sit Alpha Double-Plus, who serve as the future scientists and top administrators of the world.
Citizens in the World State of all castes are not born to a mother, but instead created in laboratories through a process of artificial insemination.
People in different castes are conditioned to be happy in their own way, within their caste and with the caste system; they do not feel resentment towards other castes, but rather feel a slight contempt for people in lower castes and a personal relief at not bearing the societal burdens of higher caste people.
At the same time, however, all members of society are repeatedly taught that everyone is equally important to society. Citizens of the World State enjoy racial, social and economic harmony across the planet.
Although England is seen to be mostly populated with Caucasians, the population also contains substantial ethnic proportions, and across the planet, people of different racial heritage live alongside one another in harmony.
When visiting an electrical products factory in London, John witnesses Caucasians and black Senegalese working together. The only "feely" see below in the novel features a black antagonist with a white heroine.
An official at the Central London Hatchery explains that Negro fetuses are slightly easier to grow than Caucasians or Asians. Although all the World State hatcheries attempt to improve the yield of the various production processes, the Mombasa hatchery is a few hundred ahead of the others in the number of embryos produced from a single ovary London: In addition to racial harmony, gender roles appear to have been eliminated in the World State.
Both men and women are equals in society. However, a third pseudo-sex has been engineered: The purpose of their creation is to allow citizens to engage in sexual intercourse for pleasure without the constant need for contraception.
Despite the existence of Freemartins, contraception is heavily emphasized among the baseline female population, through the deeply-conditioned habitual use of Malthusian Belts Aging is a thing of the past in the World State. Biological engineering has eliminated the impact of old age upon the human body; using blood transfusionschemical enhancements, and hormone replacement therapyas well as the standard devotion to physical sports, people maintain young, strong bodies for the duration of their lives, and do not present any physical indications of old age, even appearing young when they eventually expire from natural causes.
An unspecified number of persons live as "savages" and non-citizens in reservations which figure in sections of the novel, since as noted the creation of the World State was accomplished peacefully as a consolidation of a post-apocalypse consumer society carried to the limit of conscious production of an irreversible division of labor.
Economy[ edit ] The World State operates a command economyin which prices, production, and trade are all regulated by the state. Furthermore, the economy is based on the principles of mass production and mass consumerism. Citizens of the World State have access to a vast array of very high-quality foods, goods, and services, whilst the manufacture and provision of these goods and services creates jobs for all members of society.
In order to enhance consumerism and so keep the economy strong, people are encouraged to throw away old or damaged possessions and buy new ones. In this way, every citizen of the World State is kept happy, with a plentiful supply of creature comforts and a permanent job.
This limitation is deliberately put in place in order to keep the populace busy working to produce new goods, with fears that increased free time and further technological advancements would lead to civil unrest and social instability.
This was proven in an experiment in Ireland where all workers were placed on a 4-hour day, which led to unrest and increased consumption of soma. Culture[ edit ] Culture in the World State is homogenous and appears to be fairly similar across the entire planet.
Music is very popular, and makes use of the latest gadgets to enhance listening pleasure by adding light shows and pleasant aromas. Television and "feelies" see below are widespread throughout the World State. Sport is a cornerstone of culture and is very popular, consisting of various bizarre games played using a bewildering array of high-tech gadgets, in order to keep factories busy.
Games such as "Centrifugal Bumble-Puppy", " Riemann Surface Tennis ", " Escalator Squash ", and " Electro-Magnetic Golf " are major distractions for all levels of society, alongside more recognisable sports, including wrestling and swimming."One basic economic rule, as Mr.
Rifkin points out, has not changed since Roman times: caveat emptor. In the brave new wired world, it will be ever more difficult for the buyer to beware of technology speeding forward in nanoseconds, controlled by global giants."The New York Times.
The Brave New World character Mustapha Mond, Resident World Controller of Western Europe, is named after Sir Alfred Mond. Shortly before writing the novel, Huxley visited Mond's technologically advanced plant near Billingham, north east England, and it made a great impression on him.
In Brave New World Revisited, a series of essays on topics suggested by the novel, Huxley emphasizes the necessity of resisting the power of tyranny by keeping one's mind active and free. The individual freedoms may be limited in the modern world, Huxley admits, but they must be .
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