Luther, who would be exiled in the months following the Diet of Worms Council in that was designed to martyr him, would translate the New Testament into German for the first time from the Greek-Latin New Testament of Erasmus, and publish it in September of Luther also published a German Pentateuch inand another edition of the German New Testament in Martin Luther November 10, - February 18, was a Christian theologian and Augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Protestant Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Protestant and other Christian traditions. Martin of Tours, after whom he was named.
Born at Florence11 December, ; died at Rome1 December,was the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent and Clarice Orsini, and from his earliest youth was destined for the Church.
All the benefices which the Medici could obtain were at his disposal; he consequently became possessed of the rich Abbey of Passignano in and in of Monte Cassino. Owing to the constant pressure brought to bear by Lorenzo and his envoys, Innocent VIII increated the thirteen year-old child a cardinalon condition that he should dispense with the insignia and the privilege of his office for three years.
Meanwhile his education was completed by the most distinguished Humanists and scholars, Angelo Poliziano, Marsilio Ficinoand Bernardo Dovizi later Cardinal Bibbiena. On 9 March,at Fiesolehe was invested with the insignia of a cardinal and on 22 March entered Rome.
The next day the pope received him in consistory with the customary ceremonies. The Romans found the youthful cardinal Development of the reformation after 1521 mature than his age might warrant them to expect.
His father sent him an impressive letter of advice marked by good sense and knowledge of human naturebesides bearing witness to the high and virtuous sentiments to which the elder Lorenzo returned towards the end of his life.
In this letter he enjoins upon his son certain rules of conduct, and admonishes him to be honourable, virtuous, and exemplary, the more so as the College of Cardinals at that time was deficient in these good qualities.
In the very next month Lorenzo's death recalled the cardinal to Florence. He returned once more to Rome for the papal electionwhich resulted, very much against his approval, in the elevation of the unworthy Alexander VIafter which Giovanni remained in Florence from August,until the expulsion of the Medici inwhen he fled from his native city in the habit of a Franciscan monk.
After several fruitless attempts to restore the supremacy of his familyhe led the life of a literary and artistic amateur. Patronage, liberality, and poor financial administration frequently reduced him even then to distressing straits; indeed, he remained a bad manager to the last. But though his manner of life was quite worldly he excelled in dignity, propriety, and irreproachable conduct most of the cardinals.
Towards the end of the pontificate of Julius IIfortune once more smiled on Giovanni de' Medici. In August,the pope was dangerously ill and the Medici cardinal already aspired to the succession.
In October,he became legate in Bologna and Romagna, and cherished the hope that his family would again rule in Florence. Meanwhile the cardinal suffered another reverse. The army, Spanish and papalwith which he was sojourning, was defeated in at Ravenna by the French and he was taken prisoner.
But it was a Pyrrhic victory, for the French soon lost all their possessions in Italyand the cardinalwho was to have been taken to Francesucceeded in making his escape. The supremacy of the Medici in Florence was re-established in September,and this unexpected change in the fortunes of his family was only the prelude to higher honours.
Julius II died on 21 February,and on 11 March Giovanni de' Medici, then but thirty-eight years old, was elected pope. In the first scrutiny he received only one vote.
His adherents, the younger cardinalsheld back his candidacy until the proper moment. The election met with approval even in Francealthough here and there a natural misgiving was felt as to whether the youthful pope would prove equal to his burden.
In many quarters high hopes were placed in him by politicians who relied on his pliancy, by scholars and artists of whom he was already a patron, and by theologians who looked for energetic church reforms under a pacific ruler.
Unfortunately he realized the hopes only of the artists, literati, and worldlings who looked upon the papal court as a centre of amusement.
Leo's personal appearance has been perpetuated for us in Raphael's celebrated picture at the Pitti Gallery in Florencewhich represents him with Cardinals Medici and Rossi. He was not a handsome man. His fat, shiny, effeminate countenance with weak eyes protrudes in the picture from under a close-fitting cap.
The unwieldy body is supported by thin legs. His movements were sluggish and during ecclesiastical functions his corpulence made him constantly wipe the perspiration from his face and hands, to the distress of the bystanders.
But when he laughed or spoke the unpleasant impression vanished. He had an agreeable voice, knew how to express himself with elegance and vivacity, and his manner was easy and gracious. The Venetian ambassador who related this of him was not unbiased, nor was he in Rome at the time, nevertheless the phrase illustrates fairly the pope's pleasure-loving nature and the lack of seriousness that characterized him.
He paid no attention to the dangers threatening the papacyand gave himself up unrestrainedly to amusements, that were provided in lavish abundance.The Reformation (more fully the Protestant Reformation, or the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe.
The Reformation was a 16th-century religious and political challenge to papal authority in Catholic Europe. Read more about Martin Luther, .
Jul 31, · The age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation. The most traumatic era in the entire history of Roman Catholicism, some have argued, was the period from the middle of the 14th century to the middle of the 16th.
Martin Luther (—) German theologian, professor, pastor, and church reformer.
Luther began the Protestant Reformation with the publication of his Ninety-Five Theses on October 31, In this publication, he attacked the Church’s sale of indulgences.
The subject will be considered under the following heads: The span of time during which this enthusiasm lasted may be justly considered as an historical period, and it is that which we call the period of the Counter-Reformation. It may also be well to note at the outset that this period is the.
In he was called to an assembly at Worms, Germany, to appear before Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Luther arrived prepared for another debate; he quickly discovered it was a trial at which he.