Currently she is elected representative of developing countries in ISO strategic advisory group, and as a drafting committee member she was a key contributor to ISO Her areas of expertise are CSR, organization behaviour and management thought. She has authored a book on management education and has many research papers to her credit.
Introduction India ranks second in the world for both total agricultural land and farm output. A long period of agricultural expansion began in the s, but the slowdown in agricultural growth has become a major concern.
However, there is a need to shift away from an over-regulated, subsidy-based model towards healthy fundamentals, achieved through efficiency gains along the supply chain. India is the second-largest tomato producer worldwide, with about 17 million tons produced in and behind only China about million tons.
Indian Tomato Supply Chain 19 Indian tomatoes are usually produced and harvested by smallholder farmers. Farmers stuff tomatoes in plastic boxes and then transport them to mandis, where tomatoes are traded in open markets.
When tomatoes are sold to traders, they are transported to another mandi and the same iterative process occurs. Otherwise, when sold to local fresh distributors, tomatoes are transported directly to the retail location. Despite the fragmented value chain with multiple middlemen, evidence shows that tomatoes are a profitable crop for farmers.
Inthe cost for producing tomatoes in Uttarakhand state was around 1. Food loss figures are estimates only. Figures are based on secondary research, supplemented by a limited number of primary interviews.
The amount of food loss in the supply chain highly depends on the length of the tomato journey. Although tomatoes used for processing and for fresh consumption come from the same production sources, losses differ at the harvesting stage.
Fresh-tomato value chain Harvesting: Tomato harvesting is done manually in India, which reduces food loss. Labourers can pass through fields 10 to 12 times, picking only the tomatoes that have achieved the ideal level of ripeness. The main sources of losses for tomatoes are during transport and handling.
Main sources of distribution losses are damages in transport and storage, unmet standards or inadequate remaining shelf life due to poor stock rotation. Generally, harvesting losses are similar across the two value chains, with two important exceptions.
First, given less strict specifications for processed tomatoes e. Second, processors represent a good alternative for farmers in oversupply situations, so tomatoes that otherwise may have gone unsold have a route to market.
Processed tomatoes benefit from a shorter supply chain. Indeed, processors typically source directly from the farmer or from the local mandi, which mechanically reduces the impact of loss drivers.
Although not quantified, evidence from interviews indicates that the journey to processors generates fewer food losses than the journey to fresh end-markets. The extent of losses in tomato processing depends on the equipment and technologies that are used.
In general, processing technologies are quite close and therefore opportunities for losses are limited. Once processed, tomatoes are packed aseptically, and their shelf life can be extended for about 2 years. This further reduces the losses at distribution and consumer levels compared to tomatoes for fresh consumption.
Pilots are currently being conducted by Unilever and CHEP to test the costs and benefits of these new solutions. In addition, foldable plastic packaging or nestable containers could be introduced. As current plastic crates cannot be folded or efficiently stacked, backhauling becomes an inefficient operation, reducing truck utilization rates and the overall profitability of tomatoes.
However, the case of Indian cold-chain development for potatoes, a higher-value crop with a longer shelf life, provides an interesting perspective on the complexities of post-harvest loss reduction. At present, Indian cold-storage capacity is only around 30 million tons, while requirements are about 60 million tons.
Once they have been constructed, local private actors have taken over ownership and operations, and have managed to achieve profitability.Environmental Scanning of HUL.
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Hindustan Unilever Limited has so much diversification in its personal care 5/5(1). Hindustan Unilever Limited Is the Indian Arm of the Anglo-Dutch Company –Unilever.
Both Unilever and Hul Have Established Themselves Well in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (Fmcg) Category.
in India, the Company Offers. A major contributor to this article appears to have a close connection with its subject. It may require cleanup to comply with Wikipedia's content policies, particularly neutral point of barnweddingvt.com discuss further on the talk page.
(April ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). In the year , C.K. Prahalad and Stuart Hart published a groundbreaking article in Strategy+Business magazine that introduced to the world the idea of the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP).
The idea, which says that the poor present a vast untapped business opportunity, and if companies serve the poor, they can help eradicate poverty and also make a profit, revolutionized business thinking. 1. Introduction. India ranks second in the world for both total agricultural land and farm output.
2 The country benefits from highly diversified climatic and soil conditions, and agriculture is a core part of its economic, political and social constitution. A long period of agricultural expansion began in the s, but the slowdown in agricultural growth has become a major concern.
3 The. Unilever is a British-Dutch transnational consumer goods company co-headquartered in London, United Kingdom and Rotterdam, barnweddingvt.com products include food and beverages (about 40 percent of its revenue), cleaning agents and personal care barnweddingvt.com is the world's largest consumer goods company measured by revenue.
It is Europe’s seventh most valuable company.