Background Essay What is the American Dream?
Even if dreams do carry some meaning and I believe that they dono one has any validated method for reliably extracting those meanings from any given dream.
We can easily identify how a particular dream varies from a standardized reference group in terms of dozens of standardized indicators such as how many characters, how many emotions, how many strangers etc but that kind of information does not tell us anything about the meaning the dream carries for the individual dreamer.
If I tell you that your dream contains fewer male strangers in it than other people from your age and sex reference group that may be interesting to you but it does not unlock the meaning of that dream for you. Freud and Jung attempted to derive general dream interpretation rules that individual dreamers could use to decipher their dreams but their techniques have not been validated via rigorous scientific examination.
In addition, two different analysts using exactly the same Freudian or Jungian interpretation rules will virtually always come up with dramatically different interpretations of any given dream; thus underlining the arbitrariness of the methods themselves.
But I think it is time now to throw it out there as demands for some sort of reliable dream interpretation technique keeps rising and I found my technique to be useful and consistent for interpretation of my own dreams.
I make no claim here that my technique is scientifically validated; I simply urge you to use it once for yourself and if you find it useful, great!
I originally laid out my interpretative scheme in my book McNamara ; Neuroscience of religious experience; pp. In every dream, the dreamer subjectively experiences step 1, a sense of a diminishment of self or loss of agency and control, along with a transient increase of fear or negative affect step 2 anxiety, disorientation during the liminal state etc.
And then there follows step 3 a sense of effort or search to reestablish control or a more effective sense of self, and finally some resolution step 4. Ideally that resolution would involve re-establishment of executive control and a deeper more unified sense of self but in dreams the resolution all too often involves reintegration with a dark side of the self.
The key to individual dream interpretation is to assume that every dream involves trying on a differing sense of self. The dreamer uses narrative and the decentering process to do so. We need one more piece of information before we can interpret any given dream: We need to link up or translate the four-step decentering process into the four major literary tropes linguists and literary scholars have identified as occurring in most or all narrative types.
Johns Hopkins University Press has argued that people unconsciously utilize the four major stylistic tropes metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche and irony when analyzing historical materials and constructing histories.
We now have the tools to interpret any given dream narrative. I ran to the front door and saw four black figures. The four black figures walked slowly closer to me.
Each foot they put forward, I put back. I pushed them out the door locking it right after I closed it.
I ran to the telephone and the phone was dead. The next day at school a kid and a man came up to me talking, and one said, "I am an alien, too.
Metonymy—breaking up those materials into parts step 1, disengagement and entry into liminal state. Loss of usual identity is signaled by four unknown figures approaching dreamer and loss of agency is signaled by the phone being dead and not usable. Synecdoche step 2, liminal state involves attempts to reorganize materials into a new whole.View Notes - Interpreting the American Dream from MGB at Houghton College.
* h: Macionis #1: “hat has happened recently to the American Dream? Recently, the upward trending period has ended. Dream Dictionary Online Dream Dictionary & Encyclopedia by Tony Crisp Introduction The latest edition of the Dream Dictionary is the result of some sixty years experience of working with dreams and their understanding.
was the very embodiment of the American dream”. “At fifteen Raymond Loewy had already realised that ‘industrial design could mean big money while enjoying yourself’. In . Crime and the American Dream, 5th Edition [Steven F. Messner, Richard Rosenfeld] on barnweddingvt.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
How has America's over-emphasis on the pursuit of materialistic gain contributed to the it's high rate of violent crime? CRIME AND THE AMERICAN DREAM.
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