Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. Business leaders and manager at all levels usually agree on one thing:
He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y. Both of these theories begin with the premise that management's role is to assemble the factors of production, including people, for the economic benefit of the firm.
Beyond this point, the two theories of management diverge. Theory X Theory X assumes that the average person: Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it.
Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead. Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals. Is gullible and not particularly intelligent. Essentially, Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security.
The hard approach relies on coercion, implicit threats, close supervision, and tight controls, essentially an environment of command and control.
The soft appoach is to be permissive and seek harmony with the hope that in return employees will cooperate when asked to do so.
However, neither of these extremes is optimal. The hard approach results in hostility, purposely low-output, and hard-line union demands. The soft approach results in ever-increasing requests for more rewards in exchange for ever-decreasing work output.
The optimal management approach under Theory X probably would be somewhere between these extremes. However, McGregor asserts that neither approach is appropriate because the assumptions of Theory X are not correct.
Under Theory X the firm relies on money and benefits to satisfy employees' lower needs, and once those needs are satisfied the source of motivation is lost.
Theory X management styles in fact hinder the satisfaction of higher-level needs. Consequently, the only way that employees can attempt to satisfy their higher level needs in their work is by seeking more compensation, so it is quite predictable that they will focus on monetary rewards.
While money may not be the most effective way to self-fulfillment, in a Theory X environment it may be the only way.
Under Theory X, people use work to satisfy their lower needs, and seek to satisfy their higher needs in their leisure time. But it is in satisfying their higher needs that employees can be most productive. McGregor makes the point that a command and control environment is not effective because it relies on lower needs as levers of motivation, but in modern society those needs already are satisfied and thus no longer are motivators.
In this situation, one would expect employees to dislike their work, avoid responsibility, have no interest in organizational goals, resist change, etc. From this reasoning, McGregor proposed an alternative:“Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get desired course of action, to push right button to get desired reactions.” The following are the features of motivation.
I’m refocusing on some patterns and practices for feeling good. I think motivation is one of the most crucial skills you need throughout your life. Even if already have motivation techniques that work for you, you can always add more motivation tools to your toolbox, or validate the motivation.
Motivation in the Workplace for Optimal Results Is Not a 'One Size Fits All' Implementation. Motivation in the Workplace for Optimal Results Is Not a 'One Size Fits All' Implementation. Business Motivation Videos - Inspirational DVDs - TrainingABC.
This second edition of the best-selling textbook on Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior provides an update of the critical analysis of the scientific literature on this topic, and provides a highly integrated treatment of leading theories, including their historical roots and progression over the years.
A heavy emphasis is placed on the notion that behavior in the workplace is. Jun 30, · Most employees need motivation to feel good about their jobs and perform optimally. Some employees are money motivated while others find recognition and rewards personally motivating.