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Manufacturing[ edit ] Flexible printed circuits FPC are made with a photolithographic technology. An alternative way of making flexible foil circuits or flexible flat cables FFCs is laminating very thin 0. These PET layers, typically 0. Tightly assembled electronic packages, where electrical connections are required in 3 axes, such as cameras static application.
Electrical connections where the assembly is required to flex during its normal use, such as folding cell phones dynamic application. Electrical connections between sub-assemblies to replace wire harnesses, which are heavier and bulkier, such as in cars, rockets and satellites.
Electrical connections where board thickness or space constraints are driving factors. Advantage of FPCs[ edit ] Potential to replace multiple rigid boards or connectors Single-sided circuits are ideal for dynamic or high-flex applications Stacked FPCs in various configurations Disadvantages of FPCs[ edit ] Cost increase over rigid PCBs Increased risk of damage during handling or use More difficult assembly process Repair and rework is difficult or impossible Generally worse panel utilization resulting in increased cost Applications[ edit ] Flex circuits are often used as connectors in various applications where flexibility, space savings, or production constraints limit the serviceability of rigid circuit boards or hand wiring.
A common application of flex circuits is in computer keyboards; most keyboards use flex circuits for the switch matrix.
In LCD fabrication, glass is used as a substrate. If thin flexible plastic or metal foil is used as the substrate instead, the entire system can be flexible, as the film deposited on top of the substrate is usually very thin, on the order of a few micrometres.
Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs are normally used instead of a back-light for flexible displays, making a flexible organic light-emitting diode display. Most flexible circuits are passive wiring structures that are used to interconnect electronic components such as integrated circuits, resistors, capacitors and the like, however some are used only for making interconnections between other electronic assemblies either directly or by means of connectors.
In the automotive field, flexible circuits are used in instrument panels, under-hood controls, circuits to be concealed within the headliner of the cabin, and in ABS systems.
Consumer electronics devices make use of flexible circuits in cameras, personal entertainment devices, calculators, or exercise monitors. Flexible circuits are found in industrial and medical devices where many interconnections are required in a compact package.
Cellular telephones are another widespread example of flexible circuits. Flexible solar cells have been developed for powering satellites.
These cells are lightweight, can be rolled up for launch, and are easily deployable, making them a good match for the application.
They can also be sewn into backpacks or outerwear. One of the earliest descriptions of what could be called a flex circuit was unearthed by Dr Ken Gilleo and disclosed in an English patent by Albert Hansen in where Hansen described a construction consisting of flat metal conductors on paraffin coated paper.
Curtis  a brief discussion of creating circuits on what would have been flexible insulating materials e.
An advertisement from the placed by Photocircuits Corporation in New York demonstrated their active interest in flexible circuits also.
Today, flexible circuits which are also variously known around the world variously as flexible printed wiring, flex print, flexi circuits, are used many products. Large credit is due to the efforts of Japanese electronics packaging engineers who have found countless new ways to employ flexible circuit technology.
For the last decade, flexible circuits have remained one of the fastest growing of all interconnection product market segments.Essay about Lab report over cellular respiration and photosynthesis Makenzie Ann Cox October 22, Biology Lab Report Amounts of Carbon Dioxide/ Oxygen Animals are Producing/ Consuming Introduction Every cell needs a source of energy in order to perform their daily functions.
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Published: Thu, 24 May The aim of this experiment was to separate and isolate the different photosynthetic pigments, found on spinach leaves and to extract .
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